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Today in History ARCHIVES
Understanding the Present by Honoring our Past began November 1, 2002

History Archives 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007


2003 JANUARY / FEBRUARY / MARCH / APRIL / MAY / JUNE / JULY / AUGUST / SEPTEMBER / OCTOBER / NOVEMBER / DECEMBER


2002
NOVEMBER / DECEMBER

 

Wednesday, December 31, 2003

During this week in 1985, Congress passed the Quarter Blood Amendment Act. This Act’s purpose was to define eligible Indian students for Indian education programs and tuition free attendance at Bureau of Indian Affairs or contract schools.

Tuesday, December 30, 2003

On this day in 1853, the Gadsen Purchase was made. The purchase added southern parts of Arizona and New Mexico to United States territory. Most of the nearly 46-thousand square miles were lands claimed by Native Americans.

Monday, December 29, 2003

On this day in 1890, 128 Sioux were killed at the Battle of Wounded Knee. Commonly known as the Wounded Knee Massacre, this ended the last of the Indian wars in America. It also ended the Ghost Dance Religion, which claimed that the earth would perish and come back to life again in a pure state to be inherited by Natives. Wounded Knee would go on to become a phrase for all wrongs inflicted on Native Americans by the descendants of Europeans.

Wednesday, December 24, 2003

During this week in 1845, John L. O’Sullivan coined the phrase “Manifest Destiny.” He wrote an editorial to the New York Morning Times about American claims to Oregon Territory. The phrase went on to become a national doctrine that encouraged America’s claim to the North American continent.

Tuesday, December 23, 2003

On this day in 1923, Ruth Muskrat, Cherokee educator and activist, presented President Calvin Coolidge a copy of the book The Red Man in the United States. Muskrat was a life long activist and believed that Indians themselves are the only ones who can find viable solutions to Indian problems.

Monday, December 22, 2003

On this day in 1898, U.S. President William McKinley established the Hualapai Indian School Reserve. The reservation was set aside for the purpose of educating the Hualapai in Arizona Territory.

Friday, December 19, 2003

On this day in 1980, Chaco Canyon in North-eastern New Mexico and the site of many Anasazi ruins was officially designated as the Chaco Culture National Historic Park.

Wednesday, December 17, 2003

On this day in 1883, the Supreme Court overturned the conviction of Crow Dog, a Brule Sioux, for the murder of Chief Spotted Tail on the Brule Sioux reservation. Ex Parte Crow Dog was the first Native American case to be heard by the Nation’s highest court. The court said the government didn’t have jurisdiction over crimes committed on tribal lands.

Tuesday, December 16, 2003

On this day in 1987, the Trail of Tears National Historical Trial was established. The Trail consists of 2,200 miles of land and water routes and crosses 9 states.

Monday, December 15, 2003

On this day in 1890, Hunkpapa Chief Sitting Bull was killed while being arrested at Fort Yates, North Dakota by Indian Police and Eighth Cavalry soldiers. Sitting Bull was the principle Chief of the Dakota Sioux. He was 53 years old.

Friday, December 12, 2003

On this day in 1882, U.S. President Chester Arthur by executive order set-up the Pima Agency in the Gila Bend Reserve. The 35-square mile agency was occupied by the Papago.

Thursday, December 11, 2003

During this week in 1915, Blackfoot tribal member Red Fox James presented endorsements from 24 state governments to the White House. The endorsements advocated for a national recognition day for Native Americans.

Wednesday, December 10, 2003

On this day in 1991, Custer Battlefield Monument’s name was changed to the Little Bighorn Battlefield Monument. The monument in Montana is the site of the June 25,1876 battle between the U.S. Army's seventh cavalry and the Lakota Sioux, Cheyenne, and Arapaho.

Tuesday, December 9, 2003

During this week in 1971, Congress passed the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. Under the settlement, Alaskan Natives received title to a total of 40 million acres of land. The land was divided among some 220 Native villages and twelve Regional Corporations that were established by the Act.

Monday, December 8, 2003

On this day in 1818, Secretary of War John C. Calhoun recommended to Congress that tribes no longer be viewed as sovereign nations. Calhoun’s report stated that Indian should be saved from extinction and should be taught the
correctness of the concept of landownership.

Friday, December 5, 2003

During this week in 1866, Chief Red Cloud led some Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Sioux in several skirmishes against U.S. troops in northern Wyoming’s Fort Phil Kearney. The skirmishes led to the “Battle of the Hundred Slain,” or the Fetterman massacre.

Thursday, December 4, 2003

On this day in 2000, U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Bill Richardson signed an agreement that returned nearly 85,000 acres of land in Utah to the Northern Ute. The U.S. government took the land, called the Naval Shale Reserve No. 2, from the Ute in 1916. It provided a source of fuel for naval vessels.

Wednesday, December 3, 2003

On this day in 1973, the first Native American woman to be an agency superintendent was appointed. Oglala Tribal member Shirley Plume supervised the Standing Rock Agency in North Dakota.

Tuesday, December 2, 2003

On this day in 1980, the Alaska National Interest Land Conservation Act became law. This Act provides for designation and conservation of certain public lands in the State of Alaska. It was also intended to include the implementation of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act and Amendments.

Monday, December 1, 2003

On this day in 1855, the Donation Land Claim Act expired. The Act offered the opportunity for every unmarried white male citizen eighteen or older to claim a half section of land if he arrived in designated territory before December 1st. The Act led to the displacement of many Native Americans.

Friday, November 28, 2003

During this week in 1864, the Sand Creek Massacre occurred in South-eastern Colorado. Over two hundred Cheyenne and Arapaho people were killed. Soldiers and members of the Colorado volunteers mutilated the bodies.

Thursday, November 27, 2003

On this day in 1868, Cheyenne Chief Black Kettle was killed during the Battle of Washita. Lt. Colonel George Armstrong Custer attacked the Cheyenne chief’s camp and destroyed 51 lodges and the camps entire winter food supply.

Wednesday, November 26, 2003

On this day in 1884, 765 square miles of land was set-aside for the Northern Cheyenne. The reservation in the Tongue River Agency of Montana was created through an executive order.

Tuesday, November 25, 2003

During this week in 1989, Congress enacted the National Museum of the American Indian Act. The act required the museum to inventory, document, and repatriate culturally affiliated human remains and funerary objects to federally recognized Native American tribes who requested the items.

Monday, November 24, 2003

On this day in 1807, Mohawk Chief, Joseph Brandt died. Brandt was a spokesman for his people, a British military officer during the American Revolution, and the founder of the Six Nations Indian Reserve near Brantford, Ontario.

Friday, November 21, 2003

On this day in 1975, the Navajo Nation announced to the BIA their plans to relocate 60 families from the contested Navajo-Hopi joint usage area of northeastern Arizona ending a long-running land dispute.

Thursday, November 20, 2003

On this day in 1969, activists who seized Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay declared the island a reservation for all tribes. They said they would purchase the island for $24 in glass beads and red cloth. An amount they said exceeded the purchase of Manhattan Island.

Wednesday, November 19, 2003

On this day in 1958, U.S. Secretary of Interior Fred Aandahl authorized an election for a proposed amendment to the constitution and bylaws of the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon. The tribe held the election the following April.

Tuesday, November 18, 2003

On this day in 1977 the Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians of Oregon, a confederation of 27 tribes, were restored federal recognition after a termination act in 1956 declared them no longer Indian.

Monday, November 17, 2003

On this day in 1947, the assistant secretary of the interior authorized an election to approve a constitution and bylaws for the Organized Village of Kake, Alaska. The election was held on January 27, of the following year.

Friday, November 13, 2003

On this day in 1936, the constitution and bylaws for the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin was approved. 790 tribal members voted in favor and 16 voted in opposition.

Thursday, November 13, 2003

On this day in 1838, a group of 12-Hundred forcibly removed Cherokees camped near Hopkinsville, Kentucky. The Cherokees were on their way to Indian Territory when white settlers sympathized with them and gave them provisions. Many Cherokees refused the supplies to avoid any inferred support of the New Echota treaty.

Wednesday, November 12, 2003

On this day in 1981, the Department of Interior announced that a dam that would have flooded the Yavapai reservation near Phoenix, Arizona would not be built. The construction of Orme dam at the confluence of the Verde and Salt rivers was proposed in the early 1970s. The dam would have forced the Yavapai from their ancestral homeland. Each year a tribal fair and rodeo is held to commemorate the decision.

Tuesday, November 11, 2003

On this day in 1975, Canadian federal, provincial, and First Nations governments signed the James Bay Northern Quebec Agreement. The agreement, considered Canada’s first modern treaty, dealt with the administration of First Nation matters in Quebec Province. The First Nations tribes negotiated control over local affairs, including schools and land. They also received compensation.

Monday, November 10, 2003

On this day in 1997, Annie Dodge Wauneka died at the age of 87. Wauneka became the first female Navajo Nation councilwoman in 1951. She traveled throughout the Navajo reservation as a health educator and in 1963 she received the Presidential Medal of Freedom from U.S. President Lyndon Johnson for her service to her people.

Friday, November 7, 2003

During this week in 1978, the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 was ratified. The act established standards for the placement of Indian children in foster and adoptive homes to prevent the breakup of Indian families.

Thursday, November 6, 2003

On this day in 1792 United States President George Washington spoke on Indian issues in his fourth address to the U.S. Congress. President Washington presented an update on relations with tribes in different regions.

Wednesday, November 5, 2003

During this week in 1992, Ben Nighthorse Campbell became the first Native American to serve in the United States Senate in more than 60-years. Campbell is a member of the Northern Cheyenne Tribe and represents the state of Colorado. He currently chairs the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs.

Tuesday, November 4, 2003

On this day in 1879, cowboy philosopher and humorist Will Rogers was born on a ranch in Cherokee Indian Territory. The son of a respected mixed-blood Cherokee couple, Rogers grew up riding and roping on the plains of Oklahoma. He joined Texas Jack's Wild West show in 1902 under the stage name of "The Cherokee Kid." He achieved national fame with a series of movie appearances and wrote seven books. At age 55, Rogers died in a plane crash.

Monday, November 3, 2003

On this day in 1755 nearly 100 Delaware and Shawnee started a raid against settlers of Pennsylvania’s Fulton and Franklin Counties. The raids led by a Delaware leader lasted several days during which nearly 50 settlers were killed or capture.


Friday, October 31, 2003

On this day in 1755 nearly 100 Delaware and Shawnee started a raid against settlers of Pennsylvania’s Fulton and Franklin Counties. The raids led by a Delaware leader lasted several days during which nearly 50 settlers were killed or capture.

Thursday, October 30, 2003

On this day in 1763, Ottawa Chief Pontiac informed Major Henry Gladwin, Commander at Fort Detroit, that he wanted peace. Pontiac wanted to end fighting.

Wednesday, October 29, 2003

On this day in 1998, U.S. President Bill Clinton signed Proclamation 7144. The proclamation designated November as National American Indian Heritage Month. In his proclamation the president highlighted the contributions of past, present and future Native Americans.

Tuesday, October 28, 2003

During this week in 1795, the United States signed the San Lorenzo Treaty with Spain. The treaty defined the boundaries of the U.S. at the 31st parallel. The Spanish were required to abandon all forts and lands north of that line and both countries agreed to "control" the Indians within their boundaries.

Monday, October 27, 2003

During this week in 1918, the first Native American language was officially used as a code. The eight Choctaw code talkers ordered the withdrawal of two companies from the second battalion back to Chardeny. The men were credited with helping shape the end of World War I.

Friday, October 24, 2003

During this month in 1837, while negotiating under a white flag of truce, Seminole Leader Osceola was taken prisoner. While Osceola's capture was cheered, there was also public outcry at the tactics employed by the army. Osceola was imprisoned at St. Augustine within the walls of Fort Marion.

Thursday, October 23, 2003

On this day in 1823, Creek Chief William McIntosh attempted to bribe Cherokee leaders with $12,000 in hopes of convincing them to cede lands to the United States. McIntosh was representing the United States Indian Commissioners. The Cherokee, however, refused the bribe.

Wednesday, October 22, 2003

During this week in 1966 the first Alaska Federation of Natives conference was held. Cook Inlet Native Association President Emil Notti called for the first statewide meeting of Alaska Natives and their organizations. 17 Native organizations and over 250 people attended the first AFN meeting. AFN's work is credited with the passage of the Alaska Native Corporation Settlement Act.

Tuesday, October 21, 2003

During this month in 1644 English colonists murdered Opechancanough the great chief of the Powhattan confederacy. The elder chief was taken to Jamestown where a soldier shot him in the back.

Monday, October 20, 2003

During this week 1848, the Menominee tribe signed a treaty with the federal government. In the treaty the Menominee agreed to cede all their land in Wisconsin to the federal government for $350,000.

Friday, October 17, 2003

On this day in 1855, the Lame Bull Treaty was signed. It was the first peace treaty signed between the Blackfeet and the US Government. The treaty defined the boundaries of "The Blackfeet Nation”.

Thursday, October 16, 2003

On this day in 1992, Rigoberta Menchu, an outspoken Indian rights activist from Guatemala won the Nobel Peace Prize. She was honored for her work in social justice and reconciliation on behalf of indigenous peoples.

Wednesday, October 15, 2003

On this day in 1615, Samuel de Champlain and many of his Huron allies attacked the Iroquois town of Onondaga. Champlain was wounded, and several Huron were killed. Champlain's actions led to years of fighting between the Iroquois and the French.

Tuesday, October 14, 2003

On this day in 1964 Oglala Sioux athlete Billy Mills stunned the world by winning what some have called “the most sensational race in Olympic history.” Mills won the 10,000-meter run with a breathtaking come-from-behind-finish.

Monday, October 13, 2003

During this week in 1891, the first Native American woman to secure a copyright and to publish in the English language died. Sarah Winnemucca who was Paiute wrote, Life Among the Piutes: Their Wrongs and Claims, an autobiographical account of her people during their first forty years of contact with explorers and settlers.

Friday, October 10, 2003

On this day in 1918 several tribes organized the First American Indian Church in El Reno, Oklahoma. Original members included Cheyenne, Apache, Ponca, Comanche and Kiowa.

Thursday, October 9, 2003

During this month in 1962 the first Alaska state wide newspaper devoted to representing the views and issues of Alaska Natives was established. Howard Rock, an Inupiat Eskimo, founded the Tundra Times. He developed the paper following a native conference to fight a project by the Atomic Energy Commission that would have destroyed several Eskimo villages.

Wednesday, October 8, 2003

On this day in 1873, Kiowa warriors Big Tree and Santanta were released from prison with the provision that the Kiowa would remain peaceful. However after some raids by the Kiowa, Santanta was put back in prison.

Tuesday, October 7, 2003

On this day in 1969 U.S. Senator Ted Kennedy criticized the efforts of the Bureau of Indian Affairs in addressing the needs of Native American people. He called for a White House conference on Native American issues and problems.

Monday, October 6, 2003

On this day in 1986 the U.S. Congress designated the Nez Perce Historical Trail. The Nez Perce took the 1,170-mile long trail while fleeing from the U.S. Army in 1877.

Friday, October 3, 2003

On this day in 1790 Cherokee Chief John Ross was born. Ross who was Cherokee and Scottish served as Chief of the United Cherokee Nation from 1839 to 1866.

Thursday, October 2, 2003

During this week in 1962, the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs established the Institute of American Indian and Alaska Native Arts Development. Initially a high school the Institute of American Indian Art is now a two-year college offering associate degrees, it has a major contemporary Indian art museum and is located in downtown Santa Fe, New Mexico.

Wednesday, October 1, 2003

On this day in 1969, in Ridgeville, South Carolina marshals turned Indian parents and their children away from a local school. The Indians wanted to be desegregated but a court order prohibited the Indians from attending white schools.

Tuesday, September 30, 2003

On this day in 1873, four Modoc prisoners were hung to death at Alcatraz. Two other Modocs were also to be hung, but President Ulysses S. Grant commuted their sentences to life in prison.

Monday, September 29, 2003

On this day in 1973 the U.S. House Interior Committee approved the Menominee Restoration bill. The legislation aimed to reestablish federal recognition of the Menominee Indians.

Friday, September 26, 2003

During this week in 1827 the "Winnebago Expedition" ended. Winnebago Chief Red Bird surrendered in response to the army's threat to destroy the entire tribe. Red Bird was found guilty of murdering several settlers and river men.

Thursday, September 25, 2003

On this day in 1714 the five Iroquois Nations sent a letter to the Governor of New York. The letter announced that the Tuscaroras and the Iroquois Confederacy had unified.

Wednesday, September 24, 2003

On this day in 1852 the federal government granted authorization to officially move the Menominee Bands of the Lake Poygan area to their present day reservation.

Tuesday, September 23, 2003

During this week in 1819, the Chippewa signed a treaty with the United States. The tribe gave up a large section of land for $1000 a year, the services of a blacksmith, and provisions.

Monday, September 22, 2003

During this week in 1904 Chief Joseph died. The Nez Perce chief fought to preserve his homeland and did much to awaken the conscience of America to the plight of Native Americans.

Friday, September 19, 2003

On this day in 1906, the first Sioux congressman, Ben Reifel was born on the Rosebud Sioux Reservation. Reifel campaigned for improved education on reservations by recommending consolidation of reservation and county schools, and essentially integrating Native and non-Native school children.

Thursday, September 18, 2003

On this day in 1915, the first Native American woman to earn a medical degree, Susan LaFlesche Picotte died. She was born on the Omaha reservation in 1865 and was part French, Iowa and Ponca. Dr. Picotte battled government bureaucracy and worked for economic, social, and spiritual advancement of Native Americans through her entire career.

Wednesday, September 17, 2003

On this day in 1778 Delaware Principal Chief White Eyes, along with two other chiefs, signed a treaty in Pittsburgh. Chief White Eyes was appointed as a Colonel at the treaty signing and worked to see Delaware become the 14th American State.

Tuesday, September 16, 2003

On this day in 1893 100-thousand people participated in a “run for land" in the recently purchased Cherokee strip of Indian Territory in present day Oklahoma. The Cherokees were forced into selling the land to the federal government.

Monday, September 15, 2003

On this day in 1655, 64 Indian war canoes attacked New Amsterdam. The attack was in retaliation for the killing of an Indian woman by a settler for stealing some peaches. "The Peach War" as many called it had minimal casualties on both sides.

Friday, September 12, 2003

On this day in 1851, a warrior named Conquering Bear was chosen to represent the Lakota people. He was chosen after the Americans insisted each tribe name a head chief who could sign treaties on behalf their people. Conquering Bear signed the Fort Laramie treaty.

Thursday, September 11, 2003

During this week in 1989 the Cherokee Nation Tribal Council made changes to the official tribal flag. A seven-pointed black star was added to the upper right corner as a reminder of the Cherokees who lost their lives on the "Trail of Tears."

Wednesday, September 10, 2003

On this day in 1874, a group of Kiowa and Comanche attacked a military supply caravan along the Washita River, Indian Territory, in present day Oklahoma. The soldiers barricaded themselves for several days until others came to help. One soldier was killed.

Tuesday, September 9, 2003

On this day in 1871, the only Indian to achieve the rank of general in the Civil War died. Stand Watie, a Cherokee, was not only in favor of the removal of the tribes to west of the Mississippi but is also responsible for signing the treaty that forced the Cherokees to give up their lands in Georgia and move west to the Indian Territory. Waite fought for the Confederacy and earned the rank of Brigadier General.

Monday, September 8, 2003

During this week in 1957, an Act of Congress granted the Chilkats mineral rights to their lands near Klukwan in Southeast Alaska. They are one of only a very small number of Alaskans with this provision.

Friday, September 5, 2003

On this day in 1877, Oglala Sioux Chief Crazy Horse died after being bayoneted in the abdomen by a soldier. His death deprived the Oglala Sioux of one of their most notable leaders. At the time of his death, Crazy Horse was 36 years old.

Thursday, September 4, 2003

On this day in 1863, the Concow-Maidu tribe of California, while on a long walk arrived at Colby’s Ferry. Almost a year earlier the tribe left the Round Valley Reservation because of overcrowding and deplorable conditions. Along their trek back to their ancestral homelands in the Sacramento Valley, nearly 200 members of the tribe either died or were murdered.

Wednesday, September 3, 2003

On this day in 1855 the Battle of Blue Water took place. The battle was set off by U.S. soldiers seeking revenge for the death of a Lieutenant who was killed in battle over the killing of a cow. Little Thunder a Brule Sioux Chief and many women and children were murdered.

Tuesday, September 2, 2003

During this week in 1884, the U.S. government opened the United States Indian Industrial Training School, now known as Haskell Indian Nations University. The school partly fulfilled treaty promises to educate Indians in exchange for their land. Haskell has grown and is currently the only four year accredited Native American university in the country.

Friday, August 29, 2003

On this day 1978 the Minneapolis Area Director of the Bureau of Indian Affairs authorized an election for amendments to the Constitution and By-Laws of the Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin.

Thursday, August 28, 2003

On this day in 1974 members of the Navajo Nation testified before the U.S. Civil Rights Commission in New Mexico. The Tribe confirmed various abuses suffered by Native people when traveling off-reservation to towns in New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah.

Wednesday, August 27, 2003

On this day in 1878, a U.S. cavalry followed a group of Bannock Natives accused of stealing livestock along the Madison River. The cavalry fought with the Bannocks near Henry's Lake, and recovered fifty-six head of livestock.

Tuesday, August 26, 2003

During this day in 1858, in what was called "The Battle of Four Lakes," the Coeur d’Alene, Columbia River, Colville, Kalispel, and Spokane tribes fought for almost three hours with Colonel George Wright’s force. The army eventually defeated the tribes.

Monday, August 25, 2003

On this day in 1737 Thomas Penn and Munsee Chiefs signed the Walking Purchase agreement. The agreement recognized an old deed that sold Indian lands along the Delaware River at the size of the distance that a man could walk in a day and a half.

Friday, August 22, 2003

During this week in 1793 Shawnee War Chief Bluejacket and 1400 warriors gathered at Fallen Timbers near Fort Miami. Chief Bluejacket and the warriors engaged in battle with the English. They were defeated and a truce was made.

Thursday, August 21, 2003

On this day in 1852 Fort Selkirk was destroyed by a group of Tlingits who objected to the Hudson’s Bay Company trying to break the Tlingit monopoly on trade with the interior tribes.

Wednesday, August 20, 2003

On this day in 1789 Congress passed an act that would allow for compensation to officials for negotiating treaties with tribes and established a daily allowance for Commissioners who negotiated treaties.

Tuesday, August 19, 2003

On this day in 1854, a Miniconjou Sioux, named High Forehead, killed a sickly cow near Fort Laramie, Wyoming. The owner complained to Brevet Second Lieutenant John Grattan, who sent 30 volunteers to find High Forehead. Despite threats, the Sioux refused to hand him over. A shot rang out, and Grattan's artillery opened fire on the camp. Chief Conquering Bear was hit as he tried to get both sides to stop shooting. All but one of Grattan's men was killed in the fighting.

Monday, August 18, 2003

On this day in 1819, a delegation of Kansa Indians under Chief He-Roch-Che went to the Platte River Village of Otoe to negotiate peace. Chief He-Roch-Che also known as Chief the Real War Eagle was accompanied by 5 warriors and John Dougherty.

Friday, August 15, 2003

During this week in 1645, Hackensack Chief Oratamin successfully negotiated peace between the Dutch and the Indian tribes near New Amsterdam and Pavonia. The warring parties had been fighting for several years.

Thursday, August 14, 2003

During this week in 1680, the most successful Indian revolt in North American history, the Pueblo Revolt, took place. Under the leadership of Pope more than 400 Spaniards, including 21 of the province's 33 missionaries were killed.

Wednesday, August 13, 2003

During this month in 2002, Sac and Fox Nation of Oklahoma Principal Chief Don Abney ordered all flags to be flown at half staff in memory of the over 150 Sac and Fox men, women and children who were slain at the hands of the U.S. military and volunteer militiamen in August of 1832 during the Black Hawk War.

Tuesday, August 12, 2003

On this day in 1831, the “collection and removal” of the Choctaws to the west bank of the Mississippi River was appointed to special agent George Gaines. The Choctaws trusted him to handle the entire process and not to exploit them. Once there, the Choctaws were turned over to the U.S. Army.

Monday, August 11, 2003

During this week in 1988 Aleuts of Alaska received financial compensation and an apology from Congress and the President on behalf of the American people. The Aleuts were subjected to internment 40 years earlier, in response to Japanese aggression in the Aleutians.

Friday, August 8, 2003

In 1835, the United States signs a treaty with the Choctaw, Comanche, Muscogee Creek, Cherokee, Osage, Quapaw, Seneca and Wichita at Camp Holmes on the eastern border of the Grand Prairie, near the Canadian River.

Thursday, August 7, 2003

On this day in 1670, Apache and Navajo warriors attacked the ancient Zuni Pueblo of Hawikuh. They burned the church and killed the resident missionary. The Apaches and Navajos eventually forced the abandonment of six other Zuni villages.

Wednesday, August 6, 2003

On this day in 1676 Weetamoo the Sachem Chief of the Wampanoag drowned while trying to escape from European soldiers. Her head was cut off and displayed on a pole before her warriors and for town viewing.

Tuesday, August 5, 2003

During this week in 1823 a force of 500 Sioux and 200 American soldiers led by Colonel Henry Leavenworth attacked Arikara warriors. The attack was in retaliation to the Arikara attacking an American expedition two months earlier. The Arikara lost more than 60 warriors in the battle.

Monday, August 4, 2003

On this day in 1813, 500 warriors of the White Stick faction of the Creeks gathered in Coweta, Alabama to plan their attack on the Red Stick band of Creeks. The 25-hundred Red Stick band were followers of Tecumseh.

Friday, August 1, 2003

On this day in 1739 several Shawnee Chiefs signed a peace treaty with British Pennsylvania authorities not to become allies with any other country. The British agreed to enforce previous treaties banning the sale of rum to the Indians.

Thursday, July 31, 2003

On this day in 1874, Gold was discovered in the Black Hills. Immediately after the discovery a commission tried to negotiate with the Sioux for the purchase of the Black Hills, but the Sioux refused.

Wednesday, July 30, 2003

On this day in 1825 the Belantse-etoa or Minitaree tribe signed a treaty with the U.S. government. The treaty aimed to end skirmishes and established guidelines for trade between the two parties. Nine chiefs and sixteen warriors signed the document.

Tuesday, July 29, 2003

On this day in 1706 the United States and the Chippewa Indians signed a treaty at St. Peters, Wisconsin. The Chippewas traded large land holdings for 95-hundred dollars cash, 19-thousand dollars worth of supplies, and a release from their debts.

Monday, July 28, 2003

On this day in 1862 Fort Bowie was established on the Apache Pass, in southeastern Arizona. For more than 30 years the fort and the pass were the focal points of military operations and eventually lead to the surrender of Geronimo and the banishment of the Chiricahuas to Florida and Alabama.

Friday, July 25, 2003

On this day in 1625, the first land sale transaction between eastern Indians and English Colonists took place. Captain John Somerset deeded land near his village to Indians, and by doing so it legally established the Indians, not the Crown, as the land's owners.

Thursday, July 24, 2003

During this week in 1834 Crow Chief Rotten Belly began a siege of Fort McKensie on the Missouri River. The siege lasted about a week. Chief Rotten Belly was known for not only his bravery but also for his wisdom.

Wednesday, July 23, 2003

On this day in 1832, Eastern Cherokees held a council, in Red Clay, Tennessee to discuss President Jackson's proposals for their removal to Indian Territory in present day Oklahoma. The proposal was rejected and the Cherokees refused to negotiate unless the federal government honored previous treaty promises.

Tuesday, July 22, 2003

On this day in 1790, the United States enacted two laws that formalized regulation of trade with Indians. The first was titled "An Act providing for Holding a Treaty or Treaties to Establish Peace with Certain Indian Tribes,” and the second "An Act to Regulate Trade and Intercourse With the Indian Tribes.”

Monday, July 21, 2003

On this day in 1979 Jay Silverheels became the first American Indian actor to have a star placed on Hollywood’s Walk of Fame along Hollywood Boulevard. The Mohawk actor, born Harold J. Smith, played “Tonto”, in the Lone Ranger television series.

Friday, July 18, 2003

During this week in 1881, Hunkpapa Lakota Chief and Holy Man Sitting Bull surrendered to the U.S. military. After years of battling with the government, he found it impossible to feed his people because the buffalo were nearly extinct. Sitting Bull was placed in a prison camp at Fort Randall for two years.

Thursday, July 17, 2003

On this day in 1863 the Battle of Honey Springs took place in Eastern Oklahoma. Many Native Americans fought and died there for the Union and Confederate troops. The battle was the largest engagement fought in Indian Territory during the Civil War.

Wednesday, July 16, 2003

On this day in 1887, J.D.C. Atkins, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, wrote in his Annual Report that English would be the exclusive language used at all Indian schools. He argued that Native languages were not only of no use, but were detrimental to the education and civilization of Indians.

Tuesday, July 15, 2003

On this day in 1806 Lieutenant Pike began his Osage River Expedition with leaders of the Osage and Pawnee. His purpose was to explore the internal parts of Louisiana and to return women and children from various tribal nations who were held captive by the Potowatomi.

Monday, July 14, 2003

On this day in 1837 the first Mandan to die from smallpox was recorded by Francis Chardon at Fort Clark, on the upper Missouri. The outbreak of this disease spread rapidly and was extremely deadly to the Mandan and others in the area.

Friday, July 11, 2003

During this month in 1824 Seminole Principal Chief Neamathla managed to avoid the removal of his people from Florida to the west. However, Florida Governor William Duval was convinced that Neamathla was planning another uprising so he officially removed him from his position as Chief.

Thursday, July 10, 2003

On this day in 1854, 200 Sac and Fox were attacked by a force of 1,500 Comanches, Kiowas, Osage, and Apaches in central Kansas. The Sac and Fox, to their surprise, prevailed.

Wednesday, July 9, 2003

During this month in 1609 Samuel de Champlain, two Frenchmen, and sixty Algonquin and Huron Indians, attacked 200 Mohawks near Ticonderoga in New York. Champlain and the others had firearms that were devastating to the Mohawks, who ended up quitting the battle.

Tuesday, July 8, 2003

On this day in 1755 a Shawnee war party staged a series of raids in Draper's Meadows, near modern day Blackburn, Virginia. They killed 5 settlers and captured several others including Mary Ingles, who later escaped. Her children, however, remained in the wilderness and were raised Shawnee.

Monday, July 7, 2003

On this day in 1598 leaders from seven different Pueblos met in a council with Oñate at the village of San Domingo Pueblo in New Mexico. According to journals, the tribal leaders pledged allegiance to Spain.

Friday, July 4, 2003

On this day in 1887 World Champion Marathoner Thomas Longboat was born. The Iroquois/Onondaga native known as the "Bronze Mercury,” won the 1907 Boston Marathon. Longboat is considered one of Canada's greatest athletes.

Thursday, July 3 , 2003

On this day in 1868 the Fort Bridger Treaty between the United States and the eastern band of Shoshone and the Bannock tribes was signed in the Utah territory. The treaty called for peace between the tribes and the U.S. and set provisions to establish reservations for the tribes.

Wednesday, July 2 , 2003

During this month in 1675 the first Indian scalps were cut off during “King Philip’s War.” In route from Reheboth to Swansea, Lieutenant Oakes and his men encountered some "hostiles" and a battle ensued. After the fight, the severed scalps were sent as trophies to Boston for display.

Tuesday, July 1 , 2003

On this day in 1955 the Indian Health Act was passed. It transferred Indian health services from the Interior Department to the Public Health Service’s Indian Health Agency. Just over two decades later it was moved into the U.S. Health and Human Services Department.

Monday, June 30 , 2003

On this day in 1938, Olympic Gold Medallist Billy Mills was born in Pine Ridge, South Dakota. In the 1964 Olympic games in Tokyo, Japan, the Oglala Lakota athlete won the gold medal in the 10,000-meter race.


Friday, June 27 , 2003

During this month in 1939, a famous Nez Perce battle site in the Beaverhead National Monument in Montana was transferred and named the Big Hole Battlefield National Monument.

Thursday, June 26 , 2003

During this week in 2001 the National Aboriginal Veterans War Monument was unveiled in Ottawa, Canada. The monument depicts three Aboriginal groups and commemorates the Great War, World War II, the Korean War and Peacekeepers.

Wednesday, June 25 , 2003

During this week in 1865 Cherokee native Stan Watie became the last confederate general to lay down his arms. He was the only Indian to achieve the rank of general in the Civil War. He was given command of the first Indian Brigade. Watie’s troops participated in 18 battles or major skirmishes with federal troops during the Civil War. After the war he briefly served as a member of a Cherokee delegation for treaty negotiations but then abandoned public life and returned home.

Tuesday, June 24 , 2003

On this day in 1948, the members of the Crow Tribe approved their tribal constitution. Under this constitution the tribe established a general council form of government in which every adult enrolled member is allowed to vote if they are present during the meeting of the general council.

Monday, June 23 , 2003

On this day in 1704, former Governor of South Carolina, James Moore, led a force of 50 British, and 1,000 Creek Indians against Spanish settlements. They attacked a Mission in Northwestern Florida. They took many Indians as slaves and killed Father Manuel de Mendoza.
Friday, June 20, 2003

During this week in 1839, members of the Cherokee tribe killed the first editor of the Cherokee Phoenix Elias Boudinot, Chief Major Ridge and his son, John Ridge for treasonous betrayal. The three victims were members of the Cherokee "Treaty Party,” who agreed to the removal of the Cherokees from their lands east of the Mississippi river.

Thursday, June 19, 2003

During this month in 1877, the Ponca arrived at the Otto reservation. They were forcibly marched from their old reservation to Indian Territory. The Otto took pity on the Ponca and gave them some horses to help carry their people.

Tuesday, June 17 , 2003

On this day in 1865 Omaha Native Susan LaFlesche Picotte, the first Native American woman doctor was born. She graduated from the Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania and was a member of the Nebraska State Medical Society.

Thursday, June 12, 2003

On this day in 1855, at the Walla Walla Conference, Washington Territorial Governor Issac Stevens bypassed the entire structure of the American Constitutional System by giving Congress sole power to ratify treaties.

Wednesday, June 11, 2003

During this month in 1675 King Philip’s War started. The war was named after Wampanoag leader Metacom but whom the English called Philip. The war was considered the bloodiest of all the Indian wars and mounted the fiercest battles ever fought on New England territory.

Tuesday, June 10, 2003

During this week in 1866 Chief Seattle, the leader of the Duwamish and Suquamish tribes, died. Controversy surrounds whether he authored a famous speech about the environment. The city of Seattle was named in his honor.

Monday, June 9, 2003

On this day in 1958, the Atomic Energy Commission officially named a plan to conduct a nuclear blast in the Arctic, Project Chariot. Ground zero was to be 31 miles southeast of Point Hope, an Inupiaq Eskimo village. The plan was dropped in 1962 after public opposition.

Friday, June 6, 2003

On this day in 1984 the U.S. Senate voted to make the Committee on Indian Affairs permanent. Legislation proposed by members of the Senate that specifically pertains to American Indians, Native Hawaiians, or Alaska Natives, is under the jurisdiction of the Committee.

Thursday, June 5, 2003

On this day in 1873, Alcatraz’s first Indian prisoner known as Paiute Tom started his prison term at the infamous facility. Tom’s stay at the prison was short. He was shot and killed by a guard two days after arriving. It’s unknown today what he was convicted of or why he was killed.

Wednesday, June 4, 2003

On this day in 1647, Narragansett Chief Canonicus died. He was chief of the tribe when the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock. He also granted Rhode Island to Roger Williams in 1636. He was approximately 88 years old.

Tuesday, June 3, 2003

During this month in 1868, Navajos signed a treaty after the Long Walk when Kit Carson rounded up 8,000 Navajos and forced them to walk more than 300 miles to the Bosque Redondo reservation in southern New Mexico. Officials called it a reservation, but to the conquered and exiled Navajos it was a prison camp.

Thursday, May 29, 2003

On this day in 1890, Charles L. Hyde, a Pierre, South Dakota citizen, wrote a letter to the Secretary of the Interior saying the Ghost Dance was leading to a possible uprising by the Sioux. Prior to the letter, federal agents were not concerned about the Ghost Dance, but soon after, they feared the ceremony.

Wednesday, May 28, 2003

On this day in 1888, Sauk and Fox Native, Jim Thorpe, was born in Prague, Oklahoma. One of the most accomplished all-around athletes in history, Thorpe was selected as the greatest American athlete and the greatest football player of the first half of the 20th century.

Tuesday, May 27, 2003

During this month in 1616, Virginia’s Deputy Governor George Yeardley and a group of men killed twenty to forty Chickahominy Indians. It was under Yeardley’s leadership that friendly relations between the Chickahominy and the colony ended.

Monday, May 26, 2003

During this month in 1513, Ponce de Leon encountered Calusa Indians while exploring the Gulf Coast of Florida near Charlotte harbor. In a fight with the Calusa, de Leon captured four warriors.

Friday, May 23, 2003

During this week in 1863, Paiute Chief Captain George arrived at Camp Independence in California. The Paiute Chief tells the soldiers that the Paiute want peace and he effectively ends the Owens Valley War

Thursday, May 22, 2003

During this week in 1830, Congress passed President Andrew Jackson’s Indian Removal Act. The Act removed tribes living on lands east of the Mississippi River to lands west of it. Although the removal was labeled as voluntary and peaceful the tribes who resisted were forcibly removed.

Wednesday, May 21, 2003

On this day in 2002, Gordon’s Island in Princeton, Maine was returned to its rightful owners- the Passamaquoddy Tribe. The island was a burial site for many of the tribe’s ancestors who died of small pox in the mid 1800’s.

Tuesday, May 20, 2003

During this month in 1733, Creek Chief Tomo-chi-chi agreed to the Treaty of Savannah. The treaty officially gave General Oglethorpe permission to live on the land, which ultimately became Georgia, the last of the thirteen colonies.

Monday, May 19, 2003

During this month in 1944, Van Thomas Barfoot a Mississippi Choctaw knocked out two machine gun nests, captured 17 German soldiers, repelled a German tank assault, destroyed a Nazi field piece and carried two wounded commanders to safety all in one day. He was awarded the Medal of Honor for his heroic efforts.

Friday, May 16, 2003

On this day in 1760, Creek Warrior Chief Hobbythacco led an attack on a group of English traders in Georgia. The Creek Chief often supported the English, but at the outbreak of the Cherokee war he decided to support the Cherokees.

Thursday, May 15, 2003

On this day in 1876, President Ulysses S. Grant issued an executive order creating the Cabazon Reservation for the Cahuilla Indians. Prior to the order, the Cahuilla moved many times due to Southern Pacific Railroad’s claim to local water rights.

Tuesday, May 13, 2003

On this day in 1614, the Viceroy of Mexico found Spanish Explorer Juan de Oñate guilty of atrocities against the Indians of New Mexico. As part of his punishment, he was banned from entering New Mexico again.

Monday, May 12, 2003

On this day in 1903, the U.S. Supreme Court ordered the removal and relocation of the Pala Band of Mission Indians, also known as Cupenos, to the Luiseno reservation. The Cupenos call the three-day journey their "Trail of Tears."

Friday, May 10, 2003

On this day in 1907, Lemhi-Shoshone Chief Tendoy died. After his death, 500 Lemhi departed their land for Fort Hall. Instead of riding in trains like prisoners they rode horses and wagons on the two hundred mile journey.

Thursday, May 9, 2003

During this month in 1885, the second Riel Rebellion occurred in Canada. Major General Frederick Middleton and a force of 800 soldiers attacked the Metis and Cree who were holding the village of Batoche. The fighting continued until the soldiers finally overran the village.

Wednesday, May 7, 2003

During this month in 1864, Stand Watie, a Cherokee, became the first American Indian to be promoted to the rank of Brigadier General in the Confederate Army. He was also the last Confederate General to surrender at the end of the Civil War.

Tuesday, May 6, 2003

During this month in 1863, the Santee Sioux forfeited their land after their defeat in the Minnesota uprising. 1,300 Santee Sioux were transported to a reservation in the Dakota Territory where in the first year, 300 died.

Monday, May 5, 2003

During this month in 1763, Ottawa Chief Pontiac attacked and besieged ten British forts in order to keep the British out of the Appalachian Mountains. As a result, the Proclamation of 1763 was agreed upon. It stated that no White settlers could go past the crest of the Appalachians.

Friday, May 2, 2003

During this month in 1883, Lakota Chief Sitting Bull was released from prison. He rejoined his tribe in Standing Rock where he was forced to work the fields. He spoke forcefully against plans to open part of the reservation to White settlers.

Thursday, May 1, 2003

During this month in 1927, the Alaska Territorial Legislature chose 13 year-old Benny Benson’s design for the Alaska State flag. The Aleut boy’s design was chosen from a grade school contest.

Wednesday, April 30, 2003

On this date in 1961, the Menominee Tribe of Wisconsin was terminated. The U.S. government’s termination policy ended the tribe’s status as a sovereign nation in hopes of assimilating them. Nearly 10 years later, the Menominee regained federal recognition from Congress with the passage of a bill.

Tuesday, April 29, 2003

On this date in 1860, Navajo Chief Manuelito and his warriors attacked Fort Defiance in northeastern Arizona. The fort, the first built in Navajo country, was near livestock grazing land used by the Navajo. Conflict began when the army claimed the grazing land for their horses.

Monday, April 28, 2003

During this week in 1923, Betty Mae Tiger Jumper of the Seminole Nation was born. She accomplished many firsts, including becoming the first Seminole woman high school graduate, the first Seminole nurse, and the first female to be elected to the Seminole Tribal Council.

Friday, April 25, 2003

On this day in 1951, Mitchell Red Cloud Jr. of the Ho-Chunk Nation was honored with the Medal of Honor for his heroic act in the Korean War. He stopped the enemy from overrunning his company by firing on them even though he was fatally wounded.

Thursday, April 24, 2003

During this week in 1701, William Penn signed a treaty of friendship with representatives of the Susquahanna, Shawnee, Ganawese, and the Iroquois. The treaty, known as the Articles of Agreement, said the parties would act peaceably with each other.

Wednesday, April 23, 2003

On this day in 1910, Congress opened the Flathead Indian reservation to White land seekers. An allotment lottery system was established and by the end of the year, six thousand names had been drawn and the remaining allotments were open to a land rush.

Tuesday, April 22, 2003

During this week in 1806, the Department of War established the office of Superintendent of Indian Trade. The president appointed the superintendent whose main function was to establish and control government trading factories and to control the purchases of goods for and from the Indians.

Monday, April 21, 2003

On this day in 1839, Florida’s new military commander General Alexander Macomb met with several Seminole Chiefs, including Chitto and Halek Tustenuggee. The council agreed that the Seminole could remain in Florida if they stayed near Lake Okechobee.

Friday, April 18, 2003

On this day in 1644, Powhatan Confederacy leader 99 year old Opechancanough and his forces attacked the English along the Pamunkey and York rivers. This was 22 years after his first attack at Jamestown. His followers killed almost 400 Virginia colonists.

Thursday, April 17, 2003

During this month in 1872 the Confederated Tribes of the Colville reservation was established east of the Columbia River by an executive order signed by President Ulysses S. Grant.

Wednesday, April 16, 2003

On this day in 1528 the first significant exploration of Florida occurred when Spanish soldier, explorer, and Indian fighter Panfilo de Narvaez sights Indian houses near what is now Tampa Bay. Narvaez claimed Spanish royal title to the land.

Tuesday, April 15, 2003

On this day in 1895, the most disastrous fire in Indian Territory destroyed eighteen businesses, eight homes and thirteen offices in Tahlequah, Oklahoma. Among the burned buildings was The Arrow, a weekly newspaper.

Monday, April 14, 2003

During this month in 1875, William Alchesay, Chief of the White Mountain Apache, was awarded the Indian Wars Congressional Medal of Honor for his bravery during the 1872 winter campaigns in the Tonto Basin. Chief Alchesay spent much of his life as a counselor to Indian agents.

Friday, April 11, 2003

On this day in 2001, Alaska’s governor signed a historic agreement with 62 Alaska Native groups. The agreement, which stemmed from an English-only law, committed the state to respect and work with Native Villages on a government-to-government basis.

Thursday, April 10, 2003

On this day in 1910, Navajo politician and activist Anne Dodge Wauneka was born. She was bestowed the Presidential Medal of Freedom award from President Lyndon Johnson. Dr. Wauneka played a vital role in bringing tuberculosis on Navajo land under control.

Wednesday, April 9, 2003

During this month in 1871, more than 100 Apaches, most of them defenseless women and children, were murdered outside Camp Grant in Arizona. Reportedly the early morning massacre was in retaliation to various raids by the Apache.

Tuesday, April 8, 2003

On this day in 1756, Governor Robert Morris declared war on the Delaware and Shawnee Indians. Included in his war declaration was “The Scalp Act,” which put a bounty on the scalps of Indian men, women and boys.

Monday, April 7, 2003

On this day in 1830, President Andrew Jackson submitted a bill to Congress calling for the removal of tribes in the east to lands west of the Mississippi. The Indian Removal Act was passed, and from 1830 to 1840 thousands of Native Americans were forcibly removed.

Friday, April 4, 2003

During this month in 1996, the United Methodist Church formally apologized at its national convention to the Arapaho and Cheyenne tribes for the sand creek massacre of 1864. Many women, children and elderly were killed during the massacre.

Thursday, April 3, 2003

During this month in 1676, Virginia settlers chose Nathaniel Bacon to lead an expedition against the nearby tribe of Occaneechee. New to the Colony, Bacon decided to kill the Indians instead of waiting for a formal commission from the governor.

Wednesday, April 2, 2003

On this day in 1786, the Creek tribe declared war on Georgia. The Creek refused to negotiate with the Georgians until they recognized the boundary of the Creek and Georgia land that was determined in the Augusta Treaty of 1773.

Tuesday, April 1, 2003

During this month in 1925, the Alaska Territorial Legislature enacted a law that required voters to be able to read and write the English language. The law was aimed at Tlingit Indian leader, William Lewis Paul,who emerged in the early 1920’s as a major force in Alaskan politics.

Monday, March 31, 2003

During this week in 1953, Native America mourned the death of Sac and Fox Olympic Gold Medal winner Jim Thorpe. Thorpe was voted America’s greatest all around male athlete and chosen as the greatest football player of the half-century by the Associated Press sports writers.

Friday, March 28, 2003

On this date in 1883, Chato, a Chiracahua Apache subchief, began a six-day raid of lands, killing more than 25 people. Chato served as a U.S. Army Scout, and was in part responsible for the Apaches' return to the Southwest during the early part of the twentieth century.

Thursday, March 27, 2003

On this date in 1814, the Battle of Horseshoe began. The battle is considered to be one of many events that led up to the Creek War and the signing of the Treaty of Fort Jackson, which had the Creeks forfeit over 20-million acres of land to the U.S. in retribution for the War.

Wednesday, March 26, 2003

On this date in 1682, the first recorded meeting of Europeans and the Natchez people occurred. The meeting on the Mississippi River included the Explorer Henri De Tonti who was the first to meet the Natchez.

Tuesday, March 25, 2003

On this date in 1916, Ishi, known as the last survivor of his tribe, the Yahi, died of tuberculosis. The Yahi were victims of extermination following the California Gold Rush. The population of Native Americans in California was reduced from 100,000 in 1848 to a meager 20,000 in 1910.

Monday, March 24, 2003

On this date in 1882, Crow Dog was arrested and given a murder sentence for killing Chief Spotted Tail. The shooting was the end of events that started from Crow Dog urging Spotted Tail to conform to the assimilation of the White man and follow the orders of the new Indian Agent, John Cook.

Friday, March 21, 2003

On this date in 1883, Apache sub-chiefs; Chato, Bonito and Chihuahua raided a mining town near Tombstone, Arizona. This was just the pretext General George Crook needed to mount a raid into Mexico to find the Apaches.

Thursday, March 20, 2003

On this date in 1799, William Sturges made a journal entry about life in a late 18th century Northwest coast Haida Indian village. The entry recalls numerous fur trade receipts, in which by all accounts the Indians had the upper hand.

Wednesday, March 19, 2003

On this date in 1885, the Battle of Duck Lake began in Canada. Metis leader Louis Riel and his rebellion established a provisional government to try and end the suffering imposed on Indians when the Indian agents did not have the resources necessary to relieve.

Tuesday, March 18, 2003

On this date in 1954, Korean War and Cherokee soldier Charles George died by throwing himself on an enemy grenade. George's self-sacrifice saved his infantry and his actions won him the Congressional Medal of Honor.

Monday, March 17, 2003

During this month in 17-68, Shawnee Chief and Prophet Tecumseh was born. Tecumseh took his place in history as head of a major alliance against the whites in the northeast. In the war of 18-12, Tecumseh became an ally of the English. He obtained the rank of Brigadier-General in the service.

Friday, March 14, 2003

On this date in 1889, Susan La Flesche Picotte became the first American Indian woman doctor. La Flesche received her medical degree from the Women’s Medical College of Pennsylvania, graduating at the top of her class. She spent her internship at the Woman’s Hospital in Philadelphia, from 1889 until 1893.

Thursday, March 13, 2003

On this date in 1948, one of the first Indian Army Nurses died. Sister Bridgette Pleets was one of four Lakota nuns from the Congregation of American Sisters from Fort Pierre, South Dakota. This group helped nurse soldiers back to health during the Spanish-American War in the late 1800’s.

Wednesday, March 12, 2003

On this date in 1862, the steamship “Brother Jonathan” arrived at Victoria, British Columbia from San Francisco carrying the small pox virus. The arrival started the small pox epidemic among Northwest coast tribes. From this date to December 1862, an estimated 14,000 Native people perished.

Tuesday, March 11, 2003

On this date in 1824, The Bureau of Indian Affairs was established by President James Madison as part of the Department of War. In 1849, it became an agency of the newly created Department of the Interior. By the 1850s, overseeing reservations had become its principal duty.

Monday, March 10, 2003

On this date in 1979, William Beattie Feathers former football teammate of Jim Thorpe at Carlisle Indian School, died. Feathers was a great athlete, breaking college records as an All-American. Feathers was elected to the College Football Hall of Fame.

Friday, March 7, 2003

On this date in 1913, a First Nations woman who was the first author and first native Canadian woman to have her likeness and name commemorated on a postage stamp passed away. Emily Pauline Johnson, from the Mohawk Nation is remembered for her contributions to First Nations literature.

Thursday, March 6, 2003

On this date in 1864, the largest group of Navajos, 2500 are forced to begin the “Long Walk” to Fort Sumner in eastern New Mexico. The encampment was intended as a permanent home, but miserable living conditions eventually led to Navajos being released in 1868.

Wednesday, March 5, 2003

On this date in 1980, Harold smith also known as the popular American Indian actor, Jay Silverheels died on this day. Silverheels was the first American Indian actor to have a star placed in Hollywood's Walk of Fame along Hollywood Boulevard.

Tuesday, March 4, 2003

On this date in 1929, Charles Curtis of Kaw ancestry was inaugurated as the first American Indian to serve as Vice-President of the United States. Previously, Curtis served as A U.S. Senator from Kansas.

Monday, March 3, 2003

On this date in 1871, The Indian Appropriation Act was passed by the United States. The policy of making treaties with tribes discontinue after this date. The U.S. still made agreements with tribes, but the federal government would need approval by both houses of Congress.

Friday, February 28, 2003

On this date in 1828, the first issue of The Cherokee Phoenix rolled off the presses, becoming the first American Indian newspaper. The Cherokee Phoenix, which is still published today, was cast in the Cherokee font. Cherokee tribal member Sequoyah created the font, also known as “Talking Leaves”.

Thursday, February 27, 2003

On this date in 1973, the American Indian Movement known as AIM seized control of tribal offices on the pine ridge reservation in South Dakota. The occupation of Wounded Knee was started to protest the reservation’s officially sanctioned government and continued for 71 days.

Wednesday, February 26, 2003

On this date in 1860, white settlers from Eureka, California, attacked and killed 188 members of the Wiyot Tribe on Indian Island in Humboldt Bay. Only one Wiyot member survived – a child named Jerry James, who was the son of chief Captain Jim.

Tuesday, February 25, 2003

On this date in 1643, Dutch soldiers, under New Amsterdam Governor Kieft, attacked two Wecquaesgeek villages, who had sought protection from aggressive Mahicans. Dutch soldiers took the heads of victims and played kickball with them.

Monday, February 24, 2003

On this date in 1976, the body of American Indian movement member Anna Mae Pictou Aquash was found in a snow-covered ditch on South Dakota’s Pine Ridge reservation. She died from a gun shot wound to the head. The murder remains unsolved.

Friday, February 21, 2003

On this date in 1877, Chief Standing Bear and seven other Ponca leaders returned to their home in Nebraska after a visit to the Osage Reservation in Indian Territory to choose land for a reservation. Their return to Nebraska was considered an act of insubordination.

Thursday, February 20, 2003

On this date in 1900, Chief Washakie of the Shoshone Tribe died at the age 102. He led his people for six decades up until his death. Chief Washakie signed the 1868 Fort Bridger Treaty, which established the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming.

Wednesday, February 19, 2003

On this date in 1858, Nisqually Chief Leschi was hung to death after being framed for the murder of a white soldier in the war between Washington Territory and the Nisqually. The war was a result of Leschi refusing to sign the Medicine Creek Treaty of 1854.

Monday, February 17, 2003

On this date in 1793, Alexander McGillivray, known as the Emperor of the Creek Nation, died while negotiating with Spain for an Indian confederacy to oppose the United States. McGillivray gained financially by siding off and on with Spain and the U.S.

Friday, February 14, 2003

On this date in 1931, congress approved, with the consent of the Navajo Nation Council, for the president to establish Canyon De Chelly National Monument within the Navajo Reservation in Arizona. President Hoover authorized the park two months later.

Thursday, February 13, 2003

On this date in 1913, Congress repealed a provision in the Indian appropriation act, putting a stop to plans by the Interior Department to sell a tract of land in Kansas City, Kansas that was a public burial ground for the Wyandotte Tribe, granted by an 1855 treaty.

Wednesday, February 12, 2003

On this date in 1599, the sentences against survivors of the Oñate-ordered January attack on Acoma Pueblo were carried out. Under Spanish law, one foot was cut off of all Acoma men over 25. They and other survivors, over 12, were given 20 years hard labor.

Tuesday, February 11, 2003

On this date in 1805, Sacagawea, of the Shoshone Tribe, gave birth to her first child, a son named Jean Baptiste Charbonneau, while on expedition with Lewis and Clark. The boy became known as Pomp or Pompey. Pompey’s Pillar in Montana is named for him.

Monday, February 10, 2003

On this date in 1893, the Campo Indian Reservation near San Diego was established for the Campo band of Kumeyaay Indians. The tribe that had dwindled down to 200 members, from 2000 forty years earlier, was given one acre of land.

Friday, February 7, 2003

During this month in 1944, Cherokee Nation member Jack C. Montgomery, a First Lieutenant with the 45th Infantry Division in Italy, single-handedly attacked three enemy forces, taking prisoners in the process. He was awarded the Medal of Honor.

Thursday, February 6, 2003

During this month in 1621, English colonists were surprised to be greeted by an Abenaki man who greeted them in perfect English, by saying, “Hello, Englishmen!” The man was Samoset, the first Abenaki chief to negotiate treaties and land sales with outsiders.

Wednesday, February 5, 2003

On this date in 1801, Chief Joseph Orono of the Penobscot Tribe died at the age of 113. He’s remembered as being wise and fair. Orono asked for justice for the wrongs done to his people by whites. The town of Orono, Maine is named in his honor.

Tuesday, February 4, 2003

On this date in 1977, the U.S. Senate re-established the Committee on Indian Affairs as a temporary Select Committee, after a 20-year lull when termination of tribes was in effect. The Committee’s term was extended year after year until 1984, when it was made permanent.

Monday, February 3, 2003

On this date in 1854, the Texas Legislature approved the purchase and deed of land in Polk County to the Alabama Tribe. The land eventually became the reservation for the consolidated tribe of the Alabama-Coushatta.

Friday, January 31, 2003

On this date in 1855, the Treaty with the Makah at Neah Bay is signed. The Makah gave up their traditional lands to live on a reservation. The treaty ensures the Makahs’ right to fishing and whaling or sealing at the tribe’s usual and accustomed grounds.

Thursday, January 30, 2003

On this date in 1838, Seminole leader Osceola died from complications of malaria at Fort Moultrie, South Carolina. He led a valiant fight against removal of his people to Indian Territory, but eventually the Seminoles were forcibly relocated.

Wednesday, January 29, 2003

On this date in 1863, Colonel Patrick Connor and a troop of California Volunteers killed 250 members of the Northwest Shoshone Band in the Bear River Massacre. The attack, just north of the Utah border, was planned to aid Mormon settlement of the area.

Tuesday, January 28, 2003

During this month in 1879, the U.S. Army rounded up 500 Paiutes in Oregon and – what’s known as the Paiute Trail of Tears – forcibly took them to the Yakima Reservation in Washington. Descendants of those who eventually returned to Oregon are today the Burns Paiute Tribe.

Monday, January 27, 2003

On this date in 1925, Alaska’s 658-mile Serum Run from Nenana to Nome began, using 19 dog teams to deliver needed medication to stop a diphtheria outbreak. Half of the mushers were Alaska Natives. Today’s Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race pays homage to the serum run.

Friday, January 24, 2003

On this date in 1925, America’s first great prima ballerina, Maria Tallchief, was born in Fairfax, Oklahoma. Tallchief, of the Osage Nation, began dancing ballet at age 15. In 1948, she became the prima ballerina for the New York City Ballet.

Thursday, January 23, 2003

On this date in 1923, the founder of the newspaper Wassaja, Carlos Montezuma of the Yavapai Apache Tribe, died. A crusader of Indian rights, Montezuma used his newspaper to advocate for the abolishment of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Wednesday, January 22, 2003

On this date in 1855, the Treaty of Point Elliott was signed by 22 tribes from Washington’s Puget Sound region, including the Duwamish, Suquamish, Snohomish and Skagit. The tribes were given $150,000 and reservations, in exchange for giving up traditional lands.

Tuesday, January 21, 2003

On this date in 1599, Spanish troops led by Captain Vicente de Zaldívar arrived at Acoma Pueblo, seeking revenge for the death of Juan de OÑate’s nephew, whose troops had raped Acoma women. Hundreds of Acomas were killed and 600, who surrendered, were executed.

Monday, January 20, 2003

On this date in 1870, Buffalo Soldiers, under the command of Captain Francis Dodge, came upon a settlement of Mescalero Apaches in the most remote region of New Mexico’s Guadalupe Mountains and attacked them, killing ten Mescalero Apaches and taking 25 ponies.

Friday, January 17, 2003

On this date in 1893, the Kingdom of Hawaii was overthrown by a small group of mostly Americans, known as the Hawaiian League. Queen Lili’uokalani was forced to abdicate the throne. The insurgents illegally obtained the assistance of U.S. troops in the rebellion.

Thursday, January 16, 2003

On this date in 1895, Queen Lili’uokalani of the Kingdom of Hawaii was arrested when she and other Native Hawaiians attempted a revolt of the Provisional Government that had succeeded in an overthrow of the monarchy two years earlier.

Wednesday, January 15, 2003

In January 1913, the first Indian hospital built without government money was founded on the Omaha Reservation in Nebraska. The Picotte Memorial Hospital had two general and five private wards, a maternity ward and an operating room that served patients until the 1940s.

Tuesday, January 14, 2003

On this date in 1879, Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce Tribe addressed Congress about tribal lands stolen through treaties. He gave the analogy that it was like having horses that he doesn’t want to sell being sold by his neighbor, with the neighbor then letting the buyer take the horses.

Monday, January 13, 2003

On this date in 1902, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, W.S. Jones, in a letter to California’s Greenville Indian School, directed the superintendent to comply with federal policy to cut off the long hair of Indian boys as a means of civilizing them.

Friday, January 10, 2003

On this date in 1852, Cupeno Chief Antonio Garra, from Warners Springs in Southern California, was hung to death for leading an insurrection against taxes on cattle that were illegally imposed on San Diego Indians by the county sheriff.

Thursday, January 9, 2003

On this date in 1949, Canada’s most celebrated marathon runner, Thomas Longboat of the Onondaga Nation, died. Longboat won the Boston Marathon in 1907. In 1909, he was proclaimed Professional Champion of the World after winning a marathon at New York’s Madison Square Garden.

Wednesday, January 8, 2003

On this date in 1956, five American missionaries, intent on converting the Huaorani Tribe of Ecuador to Christianity, were speared to death after the missionaries had flown into the tribe’s remote territory. The Huaorani believed the missionaries were cannibals.

Tuesday, January 7, 2003

On this date in 1608, the Powhatan Tribe provided food to the settlers of Jamestown colony after a fire destroyed their provisions, which had arrived by ship five days earlier. Many of the colony’s buildings, including the first church, were destroyed.

Monday, January 6, 2003

On this date for centuries, Pueblo tribes of the Southwest and Indigenous people of Latin America have celebrated Three Kings Day, a Christian holiday introduced by the Spanish, to honor the three Wise Men bringing gifts to the Baby Jesus twelve days after his birth.

Friday, January 3, 2003

On this date in 1786, the Treaty of Hopewell, the first of nine treaties, was signed between the Choctaw Nation and the United States. The tribe ceded 69,120 acres of land and WAS ordered to free prisoners and return Blacks taken in by the tribe to slave owners.

Thursday, January 2, 2003

On this date in 1836, Queen Emma Kaleleonalani of Hawaii was born in Honolulu. She wed King Kamehameha the Fourth in 1856. The couple established The Queen’s Hospital, named in Emma’s honor. When she died, Queen Emma left most of her estate in trust for the hospital.

Wednesday, January 1, 2003

On this date in 1889, a Paiute rancher named Wovoka announced that he had dreamed a vision of a new world set aside for Native people and that White people would vanish en masse. It was the birth of the short-lived Ghost Dance religion.

Tuesday, December 31, 2002

On this date in 1974, the Wall Street Journal reported that the Navajo Code Talkers would get their first public recognition for their heroic service during World War II, when they would be marching in the 86th annual Tournament of Roses Parade on New Year’s Day.

Monday, December 30, 2002

On this date in 1805, the Treaty of Vincennes, in Indiana Territory with the Piankashaw was signed. The Piankashaw Tribe agreed to a reservation from a small portion of its traditional lands. The tribe eventually was forced to relocate to northeastern Oklahoma.

Friday, December 27, 2002

On this date in 1842, Georgia Governor Charles McDonald bestowed Georgia citizenship to the Cherokee wife of Lewis Ralston and their children. Ralston, a gold miner, was known for leading a party of Cherokees in 1848 during the California Gold rush and they discovered gold in Colorado.

Thursday, December 26, 2002

On this date in 1854, the U.S. signed a treaty with the Nisqually, Puyallup and other Puget Sound tribes of the Washington Territory. The tribes agreed to move to a reservation but retained the right to fish at all their usual and accustomed areas.

Wednesday, December 25, 2002

On this date for centuries, various Pueblo tribes in New Mexico and Texas celebrate Christmas with matachines dances, a tradition introduced by the Spanish. The pageantry blends Spanish and Indian elements in the telling of a battle between Christianity and paganism.

Tuesday, December 24, 2002

On this date in 1953, a tribe from Michigan’s Upper Peninsula got its official name, the “Sugar Island Group of Chippewa Indians and Their Descendants.” They eventually became the Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians with federal recognition in 1972.

Monday, December 23, 2002

On this date in 1813, forces under General Ferdinand L. Claiborne attacked and burned to the ground the Creek village of Ikanatchaka, which translates as Holy Ground. The Creeks believed the ground the village was located on was sacred and impregnable by whites.

Thursday, December 19, 2002

On this date in 1831, the great-granddaughter and last royal descendant of Kamehameha the Great, Bernice Pauahi Bishop, was born. Through her will the Kamehameha Schools were established. The Kamehameha School for Girls was founded on this date in 1894.

Wednesday, December 18, 2002

On this date in 1971, President Richard Nixon signed into law the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, awarding 44 million acres of land and nearly $1 billion to Alaska Natives through the establishment of 13 regional Native corporations. It extinguished all aboriginal land claims.

Tuesday, December 17, 2002

On this date in 1801, the Choctaws signed the Treaty of Fort Adams, agreeing for a road to be built through Choctaw lands, allowing for more white settlements in the Mississippi Territory. The tribe loses 1.5 million acres of land, under the guise of reestablishing an old boundary.

Monday, December 16, 2002

On this date in 1811, the New Madrid earthquake, estimated at more than 8 on the Richter scale and centered in northeast Arkansas, violently shook the Mississippi River Valley. Shawnee leader Tecumseh had prophesized the disaster years before.

Friday, December 13, 2002

On this date in 1621, the first Thanksgiving was celebrated by pilgrims, who landed at Plymouth on the Mayflower a year earlier, and members of the Wampanoag Tribe. It was a three-day feast with meals of venison, wild fowl, turkeys, corn, lobster, cod and pumpkin.

Thursday, December 12, 2002

On this date in 1531, Our Lady of Guadalupe appeared to A Nahuatl man, Cuauhtlatoazin – Juan Diego. The Virgin Mary’s appearance resulted in nine million Indians converting to Christianity. Today’s feastday is celebrated by Indian Catholics throughout the Americas.

Wednesday, December 11, 2002

On this date, the last ruler of the Kamehameha dynasty of the Kingdom of Hawaii was born in 1830 and he died on today’s same date in 1872. King Kamehameha V ruled from 1863 until his death. He’s remembered for restoring power to the local chiefs.

Tuesday, December 10, 2002

On this date in 1937, the Seminole Tribe of Florida’s first president, Frank Billie, relocated to the Big Cypress Reservation, as the Seminoles were making the move to reservations. Billie worked to help the tribe gain federal recognition in 1957.

Monday, December 9, 2002

In 1821, Sequoyah completed the Cherokee Syllabary, allowing the Cherokee Language to become a written language. It took twelve years for Sequoyah to develop the writing system that originally had 115 characters, honed to 86, to each represent a syllable.

Friday, December 6, 2002

On this date in 1831, President Andrew Jackson, in his Third Annual Message to Congress, praised the beneficial results of Indian Removal for the States directly affected and the Union as a whole, as well as being – quote – “equally advantageous to the Indians.”

Thursday, December 5, 2002

On this date in 1894, Lakota Chief Gall died on the Standing Rock Sioux Reservation, where he lived after his surrender following the Battle of the Little Bighorn, but not before fleeing to Canada. Chief Gall is believed by some to be the one who killed General Custer.

Wednesday, December 4, 2002

On this date in 1862, several hundred armed white civilians tried to lynch the 303 Santee Sioux who were sentenced to hang for their part in the Great Sioux Uprising. The soldiers, protecting the prisoners at a camp on the Minnesota River, were able to stop the angry crowd.

Tuesday, December 3, 2002

On this date in 1901, President Theodore Roosevelt, in his State of the Union address, pushed for the eradication of tribes by recognizing “the Indian as an individual and not as a member of a tribe.” He advocated for the breakup of tribal funds in trust.

Monday, December 2, 2002

On this date in 1963, President Lyndon Johnson bestowed the Medal of Freedom to Annie Dodge Wauneka, the only Native American to receive the prestigious award. Wauneka, the first woman delegate to the Navajo Nation Council, ardently worked to bring tuberculosis under control.

Friday, November 29, 2002

On this date in 1864, Colonel John Chivington and the 3rd Colorado Volunteers slaughtered more than 150 Cheyenne and Arapaho elders, women and children at Sand Creek. Weeks later, soldiers paraded through Denver, waving body parts of the dead.

Thursday, November 28, 2002

On this date in 1843, Hawaiian Independence Day was established when the Court of London, and the British and French governments formally recognized Hawaiian independence after a delegation of Native Hawaiians traveled to Europe to obtain the proclamation.

Wednesday, November 27, 2002

On this date in 1868, Lieutenant Colonel George Custer, newly reinstated after being suspended for desertion and mistreatment of soldiers, attacked Cheyenne Chief Black Kettle’s peaceful village on the Washita River in Oklahoma. One hundred-three Cheyenne were massacred.

Tuesday, November 26, 2002

On this date in 1864, the first Battle of Adobe Walls was fought, one of the largest battles between the U.S. Calvary and tribes. Forces under Colonel Kit Carson used two howitzers in their attack on Comanches and Kiowas near the Canadian River in the Texas panhandle.

Monday, November 25, 2002

On this date in 1876, the U.S. took retaliatory action for the Battle of the Little Bighorn against the Cheyenne. U.S. troops under General Ranald Mackenzie burned Chief Dull Knife’s village, even though Dull Knife himself didn’t fight at the Little Bighorn.

Friday, November 22, 2002

On this date in 1902, the Sherman Institute, a Bureau of Indian Affairs boarding school, trounced the University of Southern California football team 28-0. The game that pitted the Sherman Braves against the USC Trojans was played on the Sherman campus in Riverside, California.

Thursday, November 21, 2002

On this date in 1942, the Alaska-Canadian Highway, known as the Alcan, opened, connecting Dawson Creek, British Columbia with Fairbanks, Alaska and running through the traditional lands of numerous Athabascan tribes. It’s still Alaska’s main link to the Lower 48.

Tuesday, November 20, 2002

On this date in 1817, the First Seminole War began when U.S. authorities attempted to recapture runaway Black slaves living among the various Seminole bands in Spanish-ruled Florida. Forces under General Andrew Jackson burned villages and scattered tribal members.

Tuesday, November 19, 2002

This week in 1958, the Miccosukee Seminole Nation made official appeals to Great Britain, Spain and France, based on those countries’ past recognition of the tribe, to ask for help in getting the U.S. government to honor the treaty between the Miccosukee Seminole and the U.S.

Monday, November 18, 2002

On this date in 1813, during the Creek War, nearly 70 Hillabee Creek tribal members were massacred. An American troop of East Tennesseans and a force of Cherokees attacked the Hillabee Creeks on the day when the tribe was to surrender to General Andrew Jackson.

Friday, November 15, 2002

On this date in 1824, the signing of the “Treaty with the Quapaw” allowed the U-S to take away Arkansas lands granted to the Quapaw Tribe in an 1818 treaty. The Quapaw were now ordered to become part of the Caddo Tribe and to live on Caddo lands.

Thursday, November 14, 2002

On this date in 1888, Mother Marianne Cope and the Sisters of Saint Francis established the Bishop Home for Girls at Kalawao settlement in Moloka’i, Hawaii. The residents, mostly Native Hawaiians, suffered from Hansen’s disease or leprosy.

Wednesday, November 13, 2002

On this date in 1836, Sam Houston and John Forbes of the Provisional Government of Texas signed a treaty with the Cherokee, establishing a reservation in Texas for the Cherokee tribe and eleven others. The treaty also allowed for tribal self-governance.

Tuesday, November 12, 2002

On this date in 1981, the Interior Department announced that the Central Arizona Project’s Orme Dam would not be built. It was a victory for the Yavapai Indians of Fort McDowell, which stood to lose 17,000 acres of its homeland if the dam were built.

Monday, November 11, 2002

On this date in 1921, the “Tomb of the Unknowns” at Arlington National Cemetery was dedicated. The last traditional leader of the Crow Nation, Chief Plenty Coups, was the representative for Native Americans. He placed his war bonnet on the shrine.

Friday, November 8, 2002

On this date in 1519, Aztec leader Moctezuma welcomed Hernando Cortez and 650 Spanish explorers to the Aztec capitol of Tenochtitlán. Moctezuma thought Cortez could be the god Quetzalcoatl, whose return had been foretold.

Thursday, November 7, 2002

On this date in 1811, Shawnee leader Tecumseh’s dream of a pan-Indian confederation was squashed when his brother Tenskwatawa led an attack against Indiana Territory militia forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe. Tenskwatawa was defeated.

Wednesday, November 6, 2002

On this date in 1792, George Washington, in his fourth annual address to Congress, expressed dissatisfaction that – in his words – “Indian hostilities” – had not stopped in the young country’s frontier, north of the Ohio River.

Tuesday, November 5, 2002

On this date in 1768, the British negotiated the Treaty of Fort Stanwix with the Six Nations. The Indian confederacy agreed to give up land south of the Ohio River, but it wasn’t their land to give but rather belonged to the Shawnee, Delaware and Mingo tribes of Ohio Country.

Monday, November 4, 2002

On this date in 1879, cowboy philosopher and humorist Will Rogers was born. Rogers, of the Cherokee Nation, often quipped, “My ancestors didn’t come over on the Mayflower, but they met ‘em at the boat!” His stage name was “The Cherokee Kid.”

Friday, November 1, 2002
In November, 1942, one hundred Chippewa and Sioux civilian workers were recruited to help construct the Hastings Naval Ammunitions Depot in Hastings, Nebraska during World War II. As the community was basically white, the Native workers were segregated...living in tents at the plant.


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